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Nail removal is a form of treatment that is sometimes necessary following traumatic injuries or recurrent infections in the area of the nail. There are nonsurgical as well as surgical methods of nail removal.

Nails are removed only when necessary, to allow the skin beneath the nail (the nail bed) to heal or in some cases, to remove a nail that has been partially pulled out in an accident. Nail removal makes it possible to apply an antifungal cream directly to the infected area, increasing the likelihood that the infection can be cured. For a chronic severe fungal nail infection, you can choose to have the nail matrix destroyed during the removal procedure. This treatment prevents a diseased or disfigured nail from growing back.

The most common causes of nail disorders include trauma caused by nail biting, incorrect use of nail files or manicure scissors; fungal or bacterial infections; exposure to harsh detergents; systemic diseases and disorders like psoriasis, anemia and other congenital disorders and allergic reactions to nail polish, polish remover, or the glue used to attach false nails.

In the case of infections, it is necessary to distinguish between fungal, bacterial, and candidal (caused by Candida albicans) infections before removing the nail. Cultures can usually be obtained from pus or tissue fluid from the affected nail.

In case of non-surgical nail removal, nails can be removed by applying a mixture of 40% urea, 20% anhydrous lanolin, 5% white wax, 25% white petroleum jelly, and silica gel type H. The nail fold is treated with tincture of benzoin and covered with adhesive tape. The nail itself is thickly coated with the urea mixture, followed by a layer of plastic film and adhesive tape. The mixture is left on the nail for five to 10 days, after which the nail itself can be removed. Aftercare of surgical removal is similar to the care of any minor surgical procedure. Aftercare of the urea paste method includes applying medication for the specific infection that is being treated.

When surgical nail removal is necessary, the surgeon can remove the nail at its base with an instrument called a needlepoint scalpel. In a few cases, the nail may need to be pulled out (avulsed) from its matrix.

Risks from either procedure are minimal and normal results include the successful removal of the infected or damaged nail.


Posted by: Nancy

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Lesions on the skin are lumps or bumps such as moles, cysts, warts. Most are benign (non-cancerous) and do not cause serious problems, but if they are painful, unsightly or restrict movement, you may want to have them removed.

Surgical removal of lesions is usually only considered if other treatments such as medicines or creams and lotions are not an option. Surgery is also usually recommended to remove a skin lesion that shows any sign of turning cancerous, for example, a mole that has changed shape or colour. After these have been removed, a small sample of the removed tissue is sent to a laboratory for examination under a microscope. This is called a biopsy.

Minor skin lesions, such as warts, may be frozen off with liquid gas or treated with chemicals that are painted on such as salicylic acid. For more precise removal or for larger lesions, surgical removal is often preferred.

Surgery to remove a skin lesion is usually a quick and straightforward procedure that does not need an overnight stay in hospital. The operation is usually performed using a local anaesthetic, in which case the area around your skin lesion will be numb but you will be awake. It can also be done under a general anaesthetic, which means that you will be asleep throughout the procedure and will feel no pain. The choice of anaesthetic will depend on the size and location of your lesion.

Some lesions can be shaved down to the level of the surrounding skin, either using a surgical blade or electro-surgery, which uses an alternating current to destroy skin tissue. Skin tags may be simply snipped off with surgical scissors. Other lesions can be cut out entirely (excised) and the wound closed up with stitches. The stitches are usually removed 3-14 days later. If dissolvable stitches are used, these disappear on their own.

If there are any side-effect, they are temporary and could include include numbness caused by the local anaesthetic; pain, swelling or bruising around the operation site; a scar, which depending on the location of the lesion and how much healthy skin has to be removed, may be noticeable

You should take it easy for the first few days and take special care not to bump the operation site. If the operation site feels sore, painkillers such as paracetamol might be taken.

Posted by: Nancy
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A recent study, in the Obesity journal, reported that the percentage of overweight babies had increased from 10% in 1980 to 17% in 2001. This has been a controversial study. Detractors say, it is impossible to define what is overweight when it comes to infants. Thus, many pediatricians, including Jamie Calabrese have rejected the study. She said, babies of that age have growth phases and phases where they tend put on weight. These are not predictable and happen at varying time for different babies.

Matthew Gillman of Harvard Medical School who leads this research, insists that the trend of babies being heavier than before is real. He points to government data using the same criterion and adds, while there many questions on definition, the trend is clear. Although people consider chubby babies "cute and healthy," those extra pounds could carry health risks later in life, he says. Overweight babies who become heavy children are at a greater risk of health problems such as type 2 diabetes and high blood pressure.

The reason for this may be that mothers who go into pregnancy are heavier than before. Some are gaining excessive weight during pregnancy and they are more likely to develop gestational diabetes, which means they are more likely to have heavy babies.

The research also indicates that, parents tend to over feed their children. Some parents have been found feeding infants with fast food. These generally contribute to obesity. Breast feeding, on the other hand, has been found to produce healthy babies who aren’t overweight. Also, babies quit when they are full. Whereas, some parents use food as comfort factor and insist the babies eat more.

SAMG, founded by Dr. Nissan kahen, is one primary care clinic in Los Angeles that offers quality care and diagnosis and treatment for skin cancer. Visit SAMG or Dr. Nissan kahen’s site for more information.

 Posted by Nancy_lbn



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As models in fashion magazines get skinnier by the day, Americans are becoming more obese every year. With obesity comes the heightened risk of illness. A new study at Columbia University shows that overweight women are likely to spend three more years in poor health than women of an average weight. Obese men usually add an extra year of illness to their lives compared to thinner men.


Obesity can cause a range of illnesses including arthritis, type 2 diabetes, heart disease and general pain. Some may even have trouble with everyday tasks like bathing and dressing themselves. Also common in overweight women is a higher propensity towards depression. The constant bombardment of thin women in advertisements combined with close scrutiny from other women in society causes overweight women to become “stressed, depressed and sick,” according to Peter Muennig, assistant professor of health policy at Columbia University.


Many researchers say that the trend towards obesity in America lends itself to a lower life expectancy in general, due to the high obesity rates in children. One third of children and teens, about 25 million total, are overweight or have risk factors for becoming obese. Add that number to the over 135 million American adults who are obese and one realizes the gravity of the situation.


Not only can obesity lead to illness, it can also make people feel much older than their actual age. In numerous studies performed by RAND Corp., overweight people in their 30’s showed signs of illness that are common in 50 year-olds. On top of that, they explained their quality of life to be much lower than the older, healthier individuals.


Although obesity is widespread in America, many overweight people don’t take the time or effort to try to lose the extra pounds. Because a diet and exercise plan can be time-consuming, frustrating and difficult, many overweight people are reluctant to make that life change. Roland Sturm, a senior economist with RAND Corp. thinks the problem of obesity in America needs to be dealt with at the root.


“Maybe we should start by trying to create an environment that prevents obesity in the first place, especially for children.”


Author: Colette Davidson
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In gynecology, the Papanikolaou test (most popularly known as the Pap smear, Pap test) is a medical screening method for detecting infectious, premalignant, and malignant processes in the ectocervix, endocervix and endometrium. The pre-cancerous changes (called dysplasias) are usually caused by sexually-transmitted human papillomaviruses (HPVs). The test aims to detect and prevent the progession of HPV-induced cervical cancer and other abnormalities in the female genital tract by sampling cells from the outer opening of the cervix of the uterus and the endocervix. The test is a highly-effective, widely used method for early detection of cervical cancer and pre-cancer.


It is generally recommended that sexually active women seek Pap smear testing annually, although guidelines may vary from country to country. If results are abnormal, and depending on the nature of the abnormality, the test may need to be repeated in three to twelve months. If the abnormality requires closer scrutiny, the patient may be referred for detailed inspection of the cervix by colposcopy. The patient may also be referred for HPV DNA testing, which can serve as an adjunct (or even as an alternative) to Pap testing.


Basically the doctor inserts a plastic device called a specula into the vagina, all the way up to the cervix (the entrance to the uterus), and collects the needed cell sample (you'll feel a fairly firm pinch and some swishing motions) before it is removed. A pap smear appointment should not be scheduled during menstruation, and you should not douche, have sex or take a long bubble bath for a few days before the appointment, to prevent incorrect results. Most women's health websites will tell you that there is no pain, only mild discomfort. This is not always true as not all women have perfect textbook cervixes. But a good doctor will be as unobtrusive and gentle and quick as possible. Results usually take about 3 weeks. Slight bleeding, cramps, and other discomfort can occur afterwards, and it varies from woman to woman.


Usually it takes three weeks to get Pap test results. Most of the time, test results are normal. About 5% to 7% of pap smears produce abnormal results, possibly indicating a pre-cancerous condition. If the test shows that something might be wrong, your doctor will contact you to schedule more tests. There are many reasons for abnormal Pap test results. It usually does NOT mean you have cancer.

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Sports medicine or sport medicine is an interdisciplinary subspecialty of medicine which deals with the treatment and preventive care of athletes, both amateur and professional. The team includes specialty physicians and surgeons, Athletic trainers, physical therapists, coaches, other personnel, and, of course, the athlete.


Sports medicine has always been difficult to define because it is not a single specialty, but an area that involves health care professionals, researchers and educators from a wide variety of disciplines. Its function is not only curative and rehabilitative, but also preventative, which may actually be the most important one of all. Despite this wide scope, there has been a tendency for many to assume that sport-related problems are by default musculoskeletal and that sports medicine is an orthopaedic specialty. There is much more to sports medicine than just musculoskeletal diagnosis and treatment. Illness or injury in sport can be caused by many factors – from environmental to physiological and psychological. Consequently, sports medicine can encompass an array of specialties - cardiology, orthopaedic surgery, biomechanics, traumatology, etc. For example, heat, cold or altitude during training and competition can alter performance or may even be life threatening. What about the female triad of disordered eating, menstrual and bone density problems, and the pregnant or the aging athlete? In addition, the management of dermatological and endocrinological diseases and other such problems in the athlete demands expertise and sport-specific knowledge. The use of supplements, pharmacological or otherwise, and the topics of doping control and gender verification present complex moral, legal and health-related difficulties. Then there are the particular problems associated with international sporting events, such as the effects of travel, acclimatization and the attempt to balance an athlete's participation and her or his health. Much of this represents new fields of study where extensive clinical and basic science research is burgeoning. Finally, prevention is an area of increasingly specialized knowledge.


The Sports Medicine Specialist is a leader of the sports medicine team, which also includes specialty physicians and surgeons, physiologists, athletic trainers, physical therapists, coaches, other personnel, and, of course, the athlete.


They are physicians with a primary specialty in family practice, internal medicine, emergency medicine, pediatrics, or physical medicine and rehabilitation, most of whom obtain 1-2 years of additional training through accredited fellowship (subspecialty) programs in sports medicine. Physicians, who are board certified in family practice, internal medicine, emergency medicine, or pediatrics, are then eligible to take a subspecialty qualification examination in sports medicine. Additional forums, which add to the expertise of a Sports Medicine Specialist, include continuing education in sports medicine, and membership and participation in sports medicine societies.

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National Cancer Institute, in a study, revealed that the quality air at workplace was more related to the state’s overall pollution levels than a smoke free office. In 1999, 70% of all workplaces were smoke-free. This represents a dramatic increase from 15 years ago, when it was 3%. The regions where most tobacco is grown — generally reported the fewest smoke-free workplaces, while those in the Northeast and West had the most.

Smoke-free workplace is one where smoking is forbidden in public spaces and work areas, including individual offices. Utah has the most workers covered by anti-smoking policies followed by Maryland, California, Massachusetts and Vermont. There is a direct correlation between a community and a state enacting strong laws to protect workers from secondhand smoke and the number of workers who are protected. The largest group of employees who don't work in smoke-free environments are those in the hospitality industry. Restaurants and bars happen to be the last places where a smoke free environment is still not reality.

Tobacco companies are trying hard to fight legislations which ban smoking in certain places of restricted access. They claim to support the efforts to minimize the impact of second hand smoke, but are against bans.

SAMG, founded by Dr. Nissan kahen, is one primary care clinic in
Los Angeles that offers quality care and excellent treatment to help stop smoking. Visit SAMG or Dr. Nissan kahen’s site for more information.

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Half hour of secondhand smoke can impair normal blood flow to the heart. In a study, the smokers, whose heart arteries already showed damage, were not affected when exposed to second hand smoke. But in nonsmokers, the result was a reduced ability of heart arteries to dilate, which previous research has suggested may be a precursor to hardening of the arteries.


This change may be one reason why passive smoking is a risk factor for cardiac disease. The study confirms prior information that we've had about the adverse effects of secondhand smoke.


The Tobacco Companies representatives, dismissed the study as being nothing new.

South Atlantic Medical Group, founded by Dr. Nissan Kahen, operates primary care clinics in Los Angeles that offers treatments and programmes to help stop smoking. Visit the SAMG website or Dr. Nissan kahen’s website for more information.

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Childhood Influenza, a recent study found, is increasing at an alarming pace. The study found that 5.6% of children under five during the 2002/03 winter season had the flu in the Nashville, Tennessee, Cincinnati, Ohio, and Rochester, New York areas. In the 2003/04 winter season the number jumped to 12.2%.


Experts want all children to be routinely vaccinated. Children who are vaccinated are less likely to be affected and even if they are, the severity is lesser. The study looked at information dating from 2000 to 2004. The researchers found that doctors are only spotting 28% of childhood influenza cases in hospitals. Children with flu who are treated as outpatients are being diagnosed correctly just 17% of the time. 35% of infected children saw a health care professional within two days of onset - this means they could have benefited from antiviral drugs.


The hospitalization rates for infected children are not well documented.The data available is not consistent and therefore not quoted.  Between the ages 0 - 5 months, 4.5 per thousand children were hospitalized. In the ages 6 - 23 months, 0.9 per thousand were. Among 2 - 5 year olds, 0.3 per thousand. During the 2002/03 flu season 50 clinic visits and 6 emergency-department visits per thousand children took place. During the 2003/04 flu season 97 clinic visits and 27 emergency-department visits per thousand children took place. Pediatric outpatient visits were 10 to 250 times more frequent than hospitalizations (as a result of influenza).


Diagnosis rates were not particularly high. This is one of the reasons that is attributed to high rates of hospitalization. Since early diagnosis is not done, they result in complications. This is one of the reasons for prescribing vaccinations.


SAMG, founded by Dr. Nissan kahen, is a primary care clinic in Los Angeles that offers vaccinations for children. Visit SAMG or Dr. Nissan kahen’s site for more information.


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Vaccines are very safe. Because they are given to people who are not sick, they are held to the highest standards of safety. All vaccines have possible side effects, but most side effects are mild, such as pain or tenderness where the shot is given. Serious side effects are extremely rare. Talk to your child’s doctor or health care provider about what to expect but when you consider the risk of vaccines and the risk of diseases, vaccines are the safer choice.


Vaccines are still given for three reasons: To prevent common infections. To prevent infections that could easily re-emerge. To prevent infections that are common in other

parts of the world.


Vaccines are given when a child goes in for a routine health check-up. It is important to keep your appointments so your child receives all of the required vaccines on time. If you miss an appointment, call and reschedule a new appointment right away so your child does not fall behind on his immunizations. Your child can receive an immunization even if they have a cold or other mild illness.


It is normal for your child to feel a little sick after receiving a vaccination. He or she may have a red or sore arm where the shot was given or even develop a slight fever. Serious side effects are extremely rare. If you think your child is experiencing a severe reaction to a vaccination, call your doctor right away.


Ask your doctor for a Health and Safety Record and keep it with other important papers. Bring this Record with you to all your child’s appointments. Ask your doctor to complete the Official Immunization Record page at each visit.


Generally, you do not have to pay to get immunizations. However, make sure before you visit. Call the Family Health Information Line at 1-800-942-7434 for more information about vaccines and other programs and services to improve the health of children and families.

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